Role of Indian Central Government & State Governments


Central government

Is the govt. that has the controlling power over a unitary state. Always equivalent in a federation is the federal government, which may have distinct powers at many levels authorized or delegated to it by its federated states, though the adjective 'central' is sometimes also used to describe it.

The structure of central governments vary to country to country. Many countries have created autonomous regions by delegating powers from the central government to governments on sub national level, such as regional, state, provincial, local and other instances. Based on a broad definition of a basic political system, there are two or more levels of government that exist within an established territory and government through common institutions with shared powers as prescribed by a constitution.

State government 

It is the government of a country subdivision in a federal form of government, which have political power with the federal or national government. It may have some level of political autonomy, or be subject to the direct control of the federal government. This relationship is defined by a constitution.

The reference to "state" denotes country subdivisions which are widely known as "states", and should not be confused with a "sovereign state". 

Relations Between the Central Govt. and the States Govt.

India is a union of states. The constitution of India has divided the legislative, executive and financial powers between the central and the states govt., due to which constitution have a federal character.

Part XI-Article 245 to Article 263 of Indian Constitution deals with Centre-State relations.

Part XII of the Indian Constitution covers the finational relation between central & state govt. Article 280 deals with mandate provision for setting up the Finance Commission.

Article 248 states, Constitution is Federal in form but unitary in spirit.

Role of Central Government

  • Central is elected by the whole country. 
  • Central govt. has the power to appoint the governor of the states as well it can do the major changes in the appointment of the various CJI and the other judges in the judicial system of India. 
  • Central has power to change the names of any state under Article 3.
  • Central holds the power to execute the defense forces. It also holds the power the external affairs also.
  • Most of the important subjects are under union list .
  • The President have power to appoints the body of the Election Commission. He is in charge of conducting elections.
  • They can appoint the foreign policy of India and appoint various ambassadors in the different embassy. 
  • Central have power to make laws on state subjects.
  • Before a list becomes a law, the approval of central govt. is must.
  • The railways also come directly to the central government and the various communication organization also comes directly in the central government. 
Role of State Government
  • State govt. have to maintain internal security within boundaries of their states.
  • State have full control on police & jurisdiction of public order.
  • Education Department of the state have to Providing a public education system, maintaining school buildings and colleges, employment of teachers, providing help to under privileged ones.
  • State legislature have financial powers of the state, which include authorization of all expenditure, taxation and borrowing by the state government
  • The state governments have to provide support for farmers for agriculture, funds for best farming practices,as well as support for disease prevention and aid during disasters such as floods or droughts.
  • State governor may reserve any bill for the consideration of the President.
  • It also have power to make budget for their respective state.


The Central has been made more strong as compare to state govt. As we see above their are many powers vested for centre and state government separately for respective purpose Moreover, in India both central & state government have to work simultaneously to govern the nation. Both have to play their role as machinery for upliftment of Country.

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